Saint Petersburg Research Methods in Health and Human Services Paper

Research Methods in Health and Human Services

Please respond to this post by suggesting an additional EV that they may not have thought of.

Posted by Michelle G

Original Post:

A. 2 groups: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient (on end tidal CO2and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patient with end tidal CO2 and an arterial blood gas)

B. One group will have an end tidal CO2 while the other does not

C. Patients arterial blood gas results

D. May – July 2013, 60 minutes

Do chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients that are not intubated and receive End Tidal CO2 (ETCO2) have measurements within ±5mm Hg of CO2 as measured by arterial blood gasses compared to COPD patients that do not have ETCO2 treatments over a 60 minute period (Lermuzeaux, et al., 2016)? This would decrease patient discomfort with multiple needle sticks, possible infection and employee hours used to obtain and run ABG labs. 


Lermuzeaux, M., Meric, H., Saunef, B., Girard, S., Normand, H., Lofaso, F., & Terzi. N. (2016). Superiority of transcutaneous CO2 over end-tidal CO2 measurements for monitoring respiratory failure in non intubated patients: A pilot study. Journal of Critical Care, 31(1),150-156. Doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.09.014

Module 3:

?What is/are your IVs? End tidal CO2 monitoring

?What is/are your DVs? Does the CO2 with the End tidal CO2 stay within ±5mm Hg of Co2 on an arterial blood gas.

?Identify possible EVs that could impact your DV. Time taken to obtain ABG, delaying in running the results of the arterial blood that can compromise the results, delay in medication administration, such as fentanyl, that could stress the patients and increase or decrease CO2 levels and improper mechanical ventilation settings that could cause compromise in CO2 levels. 

?In order to increase the validity of your study, tell us how you would control your study to eliminate the impact of the EV s on your DV. I would have the same team, RN, RRT, MD and MST, caring for the patients. Making sure all of them were aware of the study and importance of exact care to each and timely manner of running results and administration of medications. 


Lermuzeaux, M., Meric, H., Saunef, B., Girard, S., Normand, H., Lofaso, F., & Terzi. N. (2016). Superiority of transcutaneous CO2 over end-tidal CO2 measurements for monitoring respiratory failure in non intubated patients: A pilot study. Journal of Critical Care, 31(1),150-156. Doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.09.014

Educational Concept in Allied Health Education

Please respond to this post.

Teaching Lesson

Kristen R posted 

After identifying different teaching methods and learning about their individual differences, I chose to reflect on one-to-one instructions. I believe this is the most helpful teaching method for many age groups. The one-to-one instructions allows the opportunity to tailor the content for each individual’s needs (Bastable, 2019). Everyone has different learning methods and it may also vary by age, but there are numerous benefits with this method to meet everyone’s needs. For someone who may be less than 18 years old, they generally learn best through role-play, audiovisuals and need to focus on details (Bastable, 2019). As a young adult, including myself, I do best at my own pace and self-directed. I do not learn well by watching behind someone, rather than taking the steps on my own. Older age groups seem to lack skills in written teachings. The one-to-one instructions in these scenarios may be best with a little extra time and verbal step by steps.

In healthcare, you will come across many age ranges and many different teaching styles. Upon teaching, you will begin to learn each person’s learning curve. When teaching an employee about a new software, the one-to-one instructions provide an opportunity to focus on their learning. This one on one experience allows them to move at their pace and communication questions or concerns immediately (Bastable, 2019). Some learners may feel worried about feeling rushed or isolated from other learns but this is a great opportunity to focus on one person’s growth at a time. This provides an opportunity to customize the most powerful forms of influencing to teach effectively (Gordon, 2003). As I work with one person at a time, you can base your teaching around what works best for them no matter what age, race or learning disabilities.

Bastable, Susan, (2019). Health Professional as Educator: Principles of Teaching and Learning. NIELSEN.

Gordon, J. (2003). One to One Teaching. ABC of Learning and Teaching in Medicine. Retrieved from…

Educational Concept in Allied Health Education

Please respond to this post.

Accommodating a Teaching Lesson

Michell Mc posted 

I am interested in one-to-one instruction because it involves face-to-face learning with learners who has unique learning needs. We all know that everybody is different and unique in every way, this includes students learning needs. There are learners who take their time to understand the instructions and needed more attention from the instructor. There are learners who are fast learners but still needed motivation to study. The one-to-one instruction can be a significant factor that gives both the learners and educators a real time interaction and receive immediate feedback (Baker, Young, & Martin, 1990). This way the student can learn in his or her own pace. This teaching method can be applied in the aspect of allied health education. Dietitian’s daily scenarios are making diet plans for their patients and also counseling their patients on special diet (Endevelt & Edelsburg, 2014). One-to-one instructions are usually the case with the dietitians and their patients. Different individuals have different needs when it comes to diet. For example; A 45 year’s old 300 pounds man will have a different diet than a 45 year’s old 105 pounds man. Their calorie intake cannot be the same as the other needed it and the other one does not. Another example is an 80 year old lady who doesn’t have teeth and an 18 year old who is anorexic. Their diet cannot be the same as well, because the old lady will be put on a soft diet and the teenager will be put on a proper diet. With the help of one-to-one instructions, these people can be counsel by the dietitian to assess their nutritional and health needs.

By using the one-to-one instructions, individuals who have a problem or having difficulties understanding any healthy literacy can be help properly. An 18 year old who is just barely graduating high school, will have a problem understanding medical languages or what is written on a paper from the hospital.Since their health literacy is limited, as a health professional my job is to make sure that the 18 year old understands what he or she is reading or signing. An 18 year old is considered as an adult and they are legal to make any decisions without their parents, but if they do not understand what they are reading or signing especially in the health field, they might be given a treatment in the hospital that they really didn’t want. Most of the time this age still doesn’t have a voice and can be shy or feel awkward to say something in a group, but with the help of one-to-one instructions from me they can feel confident to ask questions about their health. I can also use this to help people with disabilities or people with different culture. Giving them proper information about their health in one on one setting can make them feel confident. As a health professional respect to patients comes first. If the patient came from a different culture with a different religion I should try to accommodate them to their belief and needs and not push what I wanted for them to do.


Endevelt, R., & Edelsburg, A. G. (2014). A qualitative study of adherence to nutritional treatment: perspectives of patients and dietitians. Patient Prefer Adherence. 8, 147–154. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S54799

Baker, J., Young, M., & Martin, M. (1990). The effectiveness of small-group versus one-to-one remedial instruction for six students with learning difficulties. Elementary School Journal, 91, 65-76. doi: 10.1086/461638

Educational Concept in Allied Health Education

Please respond to this post.


Yesenia W posted 

Part of becoming a working professional always involves applying knowledge and practicing skills in carefully controlled and monitored settings to get constructive feedback. In its most general sense, simulation is the replication of real-world scenarios, allowing trainees to perform skills and learn actively (Sofer, 2018). Simulation presents opportunities to reproduce both rare and frequent clinical events in a realistic manner as often as needed (Sofer, 2018). For many years, healthcare professionals have practiced taking blood pressure readings on each other, learned to provide certain kinds of physical care on manikins, and rehearsed giving injections with oranges. There have been many advances in technology that now allows those allied health students to learn and practice skills on lifelike anatomical models and full-scale simulators. Full scale simulators are usually manikins that respond to treatments, such as, drawing blood. Allied health professionals, such as, nurses, can practice their abilities and skills while committing errors without harming real patients. With advances in technology, learning labs in nursing schools now include standardized patient. Simulation has long been utilized to train nurses and other providers in CPR; it’s now used in most nursing specialties for various other purposes, including physical assessment, communication, and collaboration (Sofer, 2018).

For a simulation lesson I would do it in a mock hospital room, exam room, or a critical care room. I would use a computerized mannequin “patient” that can range in age from neonate to adult, and can be assigned names and medical histories, along with anatomically correct features like a pulse, specific pupil responses, a voice, and even spurting blood. They respond to the “care” provided by students and to “medications” in a physiologically correct manner, for example with blood pressure changes or convulsions. Real medical equipment like IV pumps and crash carts add to the reality of the simulation lab. Instructors can remain hidden behind one-way mirrors in order to evaluate student performance without being physically present at the “bedside.”


Sofer, D. (2018, April). The Value of Simulation in Nursing Education. Retrieved from

Theories and Foundation of Crisis Intervention 

Please respond to this post (150 words minimum)

lesson 3 Discussion (A)

Frank M posted 

This page automatically marks posts as read as you scroll.Adjust automatic marking as read setting

Maslows stages state that food shelter safety is the first is the physiological needs the victims of hurricane Katrina suffered greatly through this because they were deprived of a lot of these needs and struggled to received them and had to depend on government aided helps to receive these needs as for the FSI family they too were put in a position where these needs were very scarce and had to depend on resources for these I can only that the crime rate would go up during Katrina as people took to looting this can be a hazard for families and individuals as for the FSI family I sympathize with them as i know what it is like to stay in homeless shelters and dealing with all sorts of people at times it is not the most safe situation The love and belonging needs is something that must have been a crucial staple in both situations as when a crisis happens the factor of being strong and having loved ones being there for you can have a big impact Self esteem and meaning: Once individuals have a sense of the parameters of belonging, they begin to measure themselves against the social and cultural precepts that prevail having self esteem and being able to enjoy others company and enjoying being happy is something that must have been very hard during the Katrina hurricane and for the FSI family it must be something they struggled with a first too but as things got better they were able to get to this stage the next two stages I relate to my own personal experiences as i went through something similar to the FSI family I was homeless and I know having a sense of purpose and self esteem is hard to believe in a future and achieving goals

Theories and Foundation of Crisis Intervention 

Please respond to this post (150 words minimum)

lesson 3 Discussion (B)

Celena W posted 

For this discussion I chose to research Carl Rogers, a humanistic psychologist. Carl Rogers main goal was to shed light on self- actualization, and to help people blossom into their full potential. Rogers states that, before a person can reach their full potential, that certain phases of the development must first be achieved. Rogers believed that there are factors to becoming a fully functioning person. “Rogers identified five characteristics of the fully functioning person.”

1. Open to experience: both positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through (rather than resorting to ego defense mechanisms).

2. Existential living: in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking back to the past or forward to the future (i.e., living for the moment).

3. Trust feelings: feeling, instincts, and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted. People’s own decisions are the right ones, and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices.

4. Creativity: creative thinking and risk-taking are features of a person’s life. A person does not play safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences.

5. Fulfilled life: a person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new challenges and experiences.

According to Roger’s, how we see ourselves, has a great deal to do with where we are going in our lives. It has a lot to do with positive affirmations in a sense. If we see ourselves doing great things, we are more likely to be sucessful in life. He says that having good self-worth and self-appreciation is formed in our earlier stages of childhood. It is like a monkey see monkey do type thing. We need to surround ourselves with positivity in order to truly have a positive outlook of ourselves.

McLeod, S. A. (2014, Feb 05). Carl Rogers. Retrieved from