Question 1 A _____ is an attribute that discredits individuals because it overshadows other attributes and merits the individual may possess.stigmastereotypetypecastcharacter flawQuestion 2 The practice of spatially or socially segregating people on the basis of race or ethnicity is referred to as:ExpulsionApartheidExclusionSegregationQuestion 3 The coexistence of different racial and ethnic groups characterized by acceptance and respect for one another’s differences is referred to as:Cultural relativismSocial toleranceCultural pluralismEthnic pluralismQuestion 4 The study of communities and their social status, practices, and problems to understand patterns of health and disease is referred to as:Racial medical historySocial epidemiologySociobiologySocial immunologyQuestion 5 Less powerful groups who are dominated politically and economically by a dominant group are referred to as:Racial groupsEthnic groupsMinoritiesSocially marginalized groupsQuestion 6 Patriarchy refers to:Any set of social relationships in which men dominate womenThe belief that one sex is innately superior to the other, and is therefore justified in having a dominant social positionThe belief that men should be the breadwinner and make all important household decisionsA political system in which women are not allowed to vote or hold officeQuestion 7 Women’s inequality is primarily the result of imperfect institutions, which can be corrected by reforms that do not fundamentally alter society itself. This statement reflects the beliefs of:Socialist feminismLiberal feminismRadical feminismMulticultural feminismQuestion 8 Which of the following is considered the “factory of gendered personalities”?FamilyPeer groupsReligionThe workplaceQuestion 9 How early do sociologists believe parents begin socializing their children into gender?When they begin schoolWhen they begin to talkAt birth, sometimes even in uteroParents do not socialize their children according to genderQuestion 10 Standpoint epistemology, a philosophical perspective that what we can know is affected by the position we occupy in society, is a major tenet of:Black feminist thoughtMarxist sociologyFunctionalismOppression theoryQuestion 11 In post-industrial societies, serial monogamy describes which of the following?Marriage to more than one personDivorce and remarriageExtramarital affairsMarriage to only one personQuestion 12 According to Nancy Chodorow women, are socialized to be _____, seeking close bonds and defining themselves through relationships.interpersonalsocialnurturingrelationalQuestion 13 Families characterized by parents living with their biological children and apart from other kin are referred to as:TraditionalBiologicalNuclearExtendedQuestion 14 In pre-industrial societies, which of the following marriage patterns was most common?PolygamyPolygynyPolyandryMonogamyQuestion 15 What expression does Talcott Parsons use to describe the family?Factory of socializationSocialization factoriesFactory of personalitiesSites of socializationQuestion 16 On which of the following points do conflict and functionalist theorists agree?A high school degree is necessary for equal opportunity.Education channels individuals into positions for which they are best suited.Education trains people in the dominant norms and values of society.Education reproduces social inequality.Question 17 _____ refers to the education of racial minorities in schools that are geographically, economically, and/or socially separated from those attended by the racial majority.Educational discriminationRacial trackingSchool segregationRacial inequalityQuestion 18 The transmission of society’s norms, values, and knowledge base by means of direct instruction is referred to as:SocializationAcculturationEducationInternship trainingQuestion 19 Which of the following is an example of the sociological term “moral education”?Fifth graders learning about laws and rights.Kindergartners learning how to behave in class.Children learning to read biblical literature.High school students learning about inequalityQuestion 20 Which of the following is an example of a symbolic interactionist approach to studying education issues?Analyzing data about the relationship between education status and incomeObserving how certain students perform in class after being labeled as “exceptional”Studying patterns of racial segregation in public educationStudying the reproduction of inequality in mass educationQuestion 21 An item believed to have acquired transcendent or magical qualities connecting humans with the divine is known as:IconRitualTotemSacred objectQuestion 22 Max Weber’s concept of the “routinization of charisma” can be described as:The institutionalization of a charismatic leader’s beliefs into an organized religious structureThe loss of the charismatic figure from whose life a religion was bornThe use of prescribed, tried-and-true techniques by a “charismatic” leader to achieve a mass followingThe use of modern technology, such as radio, Internet, and television, to evangelizeQuestion 23 Shared beliefs, values, norms, ideas, institutions, and organizations that create a common identity among a group of people is referred to as:CultureSocietyEducationReligionQuestion 24 A system of common beliefs and rituals centered on “sacred things” that unites believers and provides a sense of meaning and purpose is referred to as:CultureSocietyEducationReligionQuestion 25 The idea that religions can be understood as organizations in competition with one another for followers is known as:Religious rivalrySacred economyReligious bureacratizationReligious economy