Question 1 Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency are referred to as:StructureInstitutionsFree willSocializationQuestion 2 _____ is considered the first female sociologist and argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development.Auguste ComteÉmile DurkheimKarl MarxHarriet MartineauQuestion 3 Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency, are referred to as:InstitutionsUniversitiesBureaucraciesGovernmentQuestion 4 The relationship between agency and structure is _____, as, agency influences structureone-sided, structure enables or constrains agencyreciprocal, they both have an effect on one anothernonexistent, there is no relationship between the twoQuestion 5 Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as:NormsCultureSocial statusValuesQuestion 6 The bonds that unite the members of a social group is referred to as:CultureSocial solidarityNormsSocietal unityQuestion 7 _____ believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources.Auguste ComteÉmile DurkheimKarl MarxHarriet MartineauQuestion 8 The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as:Critical thinkingSociological imaginationScientific reasoningLogical thoughtQuestion 9 The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change is referred to as:StructureAgencyFree choiceIndividualismQuestion 10 A researcher finds that as income increases, square footage of respondent’s home also increases. This is an example of:Positive correlationPositive causationNegative correlationIncreasatory relationshipQuestion 11 A variable is defined as:The description of a relationshipA phenomena that is constantly changingA term used to summarize a set of phenomenaA concept that can take on two or more possible valuesQuestion 12 A _____ relationship is one in which one variable is the cause of another variable.CorrelatedCausalPositiveStatisticalQuestion 13 The degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another is referred to as:CausationStatistical relationshipCorrelationFrequencyQuestion 14 _____ reasoning starts from specific data and tries to identify larger patterns from which to derive more general theories.LogicalInductiveGround-levelDeductiveQuestion 15 A researcher finds that as years spent driving increases, the number of accidents decreases. This is an example of:Negative causationNegative correlationPositive correlationDecreasing relationshipQuestion 16 The term used to summarize a set of phenomena is:DefinitionConceptOperationalizationPatternQuestion 17 The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings is referred to as:VerificationReplicationValidationReliabilityQuestion 18 A culture that exists together with a dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects is referred to as:EthnicitySubcultureCountercultureSubgroupQuestion 19 The ability of a local culture to absorb outside influences that fit in and enrich their culture while resisting those that are alien is known as:Staying powerGrobalizationGlocalizationGlobalizationQuestion 20 The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group are referred to as:EthnicityCultureSocietyClassQuestion 21 Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable, are referred to as:Criminal lawsCommandmentsTaboosFundamental valuesQuestion 22 Cultural representations of social realities are referred to as:ImagesSymbolsTrademarksEthnographiesQuestion 23 The worldview whereby we judge other cultures by the standards of our own is referred to as:PatriotismNationalismEthnocentrismMulticulturalismQuestion 24 Particular ideas that people accept as true are referred to as:ReligionCultural normsValuesBeliefsQuestion 25 Abstract and general standards in society that define ideal principles such as right and wrong are referred to as:LawsPublic opinionsReligious beliefsValues