SOC 100 MIDTERM EXAM PART 2

Question 1 What is the sociological definition of significant others?Specific people important in a child’s life who have the greatest impact on their self-evaluationRelationships characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitmentThose whose opinions provide the basis for how we judge our own attitudes or behaviorsPeople of similar age and social standing that influence our norms and valuesQuestion 2 Adopting the behavior or standards of a group you emulate or hope to join is referred to as:ConformityClique socializationAnticipatory socializationPro-active conformityQuestion 3 Which of the following behaviors is most likely the result of family socialization?Texting and holding a face-to-face conversation at the same timeStanding during the playing of the national anthemArriving to an important appointment 15 minutes earlyPerforming specific household choresQuestion 4 Psychoanalysis, the psychological perspective that emphasizes the complex reasoning processes of the conscious and unconscious mind, is associated with which major theorist?George Herbert MeadSigmund FreudCharles H. CooleyJean PiagetQuestion 5 How would sociologists define social learning?The process by which people learn the culture of their societyThe way people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and punishmentsThe way people are socialized to act in a given situationThe process by which people learn norms, what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviorQuestion 6 The unspoken classroom socialization to the norms, values, and roles of a culture that school provides is referred to as:Textbook socializationSocialization curriculumCurriculum of inequalityHidden curriculumQuestion 7 _____ refers to when members of a group ignore anything that goes against the group consensus.Discompromise effectGroup cohesionGroupthinkConsent partialityQuestion 8 Power exercised over those who recognize it as deserved or earned is referred to as:Authentic authorityElectoral powerPersonal powerLegitimate authorityQuestion 9 Which of the following is an example of a secondary group?Two close friends who practice tennis togetherA father who plays catch with his sonA college basketball teamA family who watches football together every SundayQuestion 10 The simplest group, consisting of two persons, is referred to as:PairDyadDuoPrimary relationshipQuestion 11 The ability of groups to exclude outsiders participating in the group or enjoying group resources is referred to as:Social exclusionSocial closureFactioningClique capacityQuestion 12 Large, impersonal groups with minimal emotional and intimate ties are referred to as:Secondary groupsPrincipal groupsReference groupsRemandiary groupsQuestion 13 The act of having multiple wives is referred to as:MonogamyMormonismPolygamyPolyandryQuestion 14 The argument that deviant behavior is little more than a product of the labels people attach to certain types of behavior is referred to as:Catalogue theoryAssociation theoryLabeling theoryCriminal label theoryQuestion 15 An act defined in the law as punishable by fines, imprisonment or both is referred to as:DevianceLaw-breakingCrimeCriminalityQuestion 16 In the United States, which of the following would not be considered to be a normative cultural goal that people strive for?Earning economic successRaising and supporting a familyGaining recognition or fameMaintaining a steady routine, day-to-dayQuestion 17 A crime considered so heinous that it is punishable by death is referred to as:Capital offenseDeath penalty crimeEye-for-an-eye offenseFelony crime.Question 18 The idea that what is labeled deviant or criminal—and therefore who gets punished—is determined by the interests of the dominant class is referred to as:Class-dominant theoryClass conflict theoryCapitalist culture theoryMarxist theoryQuestion 19 According to Karl Marx, the _____ own the means of production, which they use to exploit the labor of the _____.proletariat, bourgeoisieindustrialists, massescapitalist class, worker classbourgeoisie, proletariatQuestion 20 The value of everything a person owns minus the value of everything he or she owes is referred to as:WealthIncomeNet capitalValue of assetsQuestion 21 A person’s economic position in society, based on differences in income, wealth, and occupation, is referred to as:CasteSocioeconomic categoryClassSocial classificationQuestion 22 The upward or downward status movement of individuals or groups over time is referred to as:Social progressionCultural promotionSocial mobilitySocioeconomic stasisQuestion 23 Which of the following is the best sociological definition of income?An individual’s yearly salaryWages, tips, and other compensationThe amount of money a person or household earns in a given period of timeThe value of everything a person owns, minus the value of everything he or she owesQuestion 24 Areas that lack places that sell competitively priced, healthy, and fresh food are referred to as:Food wastelandsGrocery desertsFood desertsFood insecure regionsQuestion 25 The systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality is referred to as:Social stratificationSocial inequalityClass differencesClass status